Joint development by doctors and ergonomists of ophthalmologists’ chairs


In the first model of ophthalmologists' chairs (first class model) developed
 in 2012, we adopted the Zen structure on their seating surface.
The 2018 model (business class model) was developed based on a new concept
 of forming the structure of the stem to connect the developed backrest with
the leg totally differently than that of the conventional office chair.
Two types of chairs were created with difference lying
in the mechanism of their structure adjustment. One is an ophthalmic
 microsurgery chair. Its design requirement is a chair adapted for ophthalmologic
surgical surgeons performing the operation in the operating room. The other
is a chair for doctors to use in the eye examination room with the
suitability for doctors’ diverse work in the clinic valued as its design
requirement. In order to reduce manufacturing and development costs,
 we promoted commonalizing as many parts as possible between the two types,
resulting in realization of minimized parts replacement,a unique way of
bracket installation and backrest rotation.

Zen structure, a seat pan structure with sacral support that provides a more even distribution of seat pressures, induces forward pelvic rotation and improves lumbar, buttock and thigh support. The three dimensional shape of seat pan was transcribed from monk Zazen posture.

Abstract:Ergonomic design of a pillow 2017

Frühjahrskongress 2017, Brugg und Zürich: Soziotechnische Gestaltung des digitalen Wandels – kreativ, innovativ, sinnhaft. Gesellschaft für Arbeitswissenschaft e.V., Dortmund (Hrsg.) –  A.1.1

Ergonomic design of a pillow

Hideki OYAMA1, Manami NOZAKI2, Kageyu NORO3

1 Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University 2-1, Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575, Japan 2 Faculty of Nursing, Toho University 4-16-20 Omorinishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-0015, Japan 3 Waseda University, ErgoSeating Co., Ltd. 4-40-2, Takadanobaba, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-0075, Japan

Abstract. This research is aimed at promoting higher quality of sleep by developing pillows that will help improve breathing through realizing unhampered body movement, in particular users’ head motion. A prototype model of cylindrical pillow was created based on a past finding that the extended positon of cervical part would lead to improved breathing than its flexed position. In addition, a supporting base was developed to put the cylinder on in a bid to secure head stability as well as to bring about more comfortable sleep and improved ventilation characteristics. Pressure distribution of head part was measured resulting in an increase in contact area of the prototype model compared with that of a conventional flat type pillow. Investigation was made on how breathing characteristics were affected by differences in head position and pillow type to obtain a finding that the extended cervical position, compared with the flexed one, tends to have a significant effect of a decrease in breathing frequency while an increase in breathing amplitude. It was concluded that the extended cervical position could expand the respiratory passage to facilitate slower and deeper breathing. Positive views were obtained from usability testing surveys with regard to such characteristic features of prototype pillows as resilience, feelings of stability, and ease of rolling-over. Meanwhile, differences among individuals were recognized in terms of suitability of pillow height. The aforementioned findings reasonably led to the presumption that prototype pillows could support the cervical extensive position with a wider contact area along neck and back of head, enabling its user to breathe more smoothly.

Keywords. pillow, head position, breathing